12 Aspects of Any Speaker’s Semantic Knowledge You Should Know

Semantics is a branch of Linguistics which studies the meaning of language and it tries to understand what meaning is as an element of language and how it is constructed by language as well as interpreted, obscured and negotiated by speakers and listeners of language. We as speakers of a language have an implicit knowledge about what is meaningful in our language. In our account of what that knowledge is, there are at least twelve technical terms used as aspects of our semantic knowledge: polysemy, homonymy, anomaly; paraphrase; synonymy; semantic feature; antonymy; contradiction; ambiguity; adjacency pairs; entailment and presupposition although it is not possible to expect that we can clearly define all the words we know or use, but the obvious thing is that we can make our thoughts and feelings and intentions known to other speakers of the language and can understand what others say.

This ability requires possession of a vocabulary and for us as speakers to know how to pronounce every item in this vocabulary and how to recognize its pronunciation by other speakers. We know how to use the production vocabulary in meaningful sentences and to understand the sentences produced by others. And of course we know meanings-how to choose the items that express what we want to express and how to find the meanings in what other people say.


We can know that a word is polysemous when it has two or more related meanings. In this case the word takes one form but can be used to mean two different things. In the case of polysemy, these two meanings must be related in some way, and not be two completely unrelated meanings of the word, e.g.: bright (shining) and bright (intelligent). mouse (animal) and mouse (computer hardware).


Homophony is similar to polysemy in that it refers to a single form of word with two meanings, however a word is a homophone when the two meanings are entirely unrelated, for example:

Bat (flying mammal) and bat (sports equipment).

Pen (writing instrument) and pen (small cage).


We know, in a general way, whether something is or is not meaningful in our language and we can tell which of the following are meaningful in English.

3a Grace wrote a letter. 3b Henry smiled. 3c The grass laughed. 3d a Wall Harry painted.

We can see that 3a and 3b are meaningful to speakers of English, while 3c and 3d are anomalous (examples of anomaly), they are generally accepted to be correct while sentence 3c appears to be meaningful and it might attain meaning in some children’s story or the like, while 3d is merely a sequence of words.


The following first and second pair sentences have essentially the same meaning and when they do not such as in the following sentences:

4a Agnes arrived before Ruth. 4b Ruth arrived before Agnes.

4c Agnes came home after Ruth. 4d Ruth came home later than Agnes.

Sentences that make equivalent statements about the same entities, like 4a and 4c, or 4b and 4d, are paraphrases (of each other).


We generally agree when two words have essentially the same meaning-in a given context. In each sentence below one word is underlined. Following the sentence is a group of words, one of which can replace the underlined word without changing the meaning of the sentence.

5a Where did you purchase these tools?

use buy release modify take

5b At the end of the street we saw two enormous statues,

pink smooth nice huge original

Words that have the same sense in a given context are synonyms-they are instances of synonymy and are synonymous with each other.


We recognize when the meaning of one sentence contradicts another sentence. The sentences below are all about the same person, but two of them are related in such a way that if one is true the other must be false.

6a Edgar is married. 6b Edgar is fairly rich.

6c Edgar is no longer young. 6d Edgar is a bachelor.

Sentences that make opposite statements about the same subject are contradictory.


We generally agree when two words have opposite meanings in a given context. We are able to choose from the group of words following 7a and 7b the word which is contrary to the underlined word in each sentence.

7a Betty cut a thick slice of cake. 7b The train departs at 12:25.

bright new soft thin wet arrives leaves waits swerves

We see two words that make opposite statements about the same subject are antonyms; they are antonymous, instances of antonymy.

Semantic Features

We know that synonyms and antonyms have to have some common elements of meaning in order to be respectively the same or different but words can have some elements of meaning without being synonymous or antonymous for example:

8a street lane road path house avenue 8b buy take use steal acquire inherit

The common element of meaning, shared by all but one word in 8a and by all but one item in 8b, is a semantic feature. We should all agree that in each of the groups of words above, 8a and 8b, all but one of the words have something in common and we know which is the word that doesn’t belong.


When some sentences have double meanings, they can be interpreted in two ways. We are aware of this fact that there should be two-way interpretations, like the following.

9a Marjorie doesn’t care for her parakeet. ((doesn’t like it; doesn’t take care of it)

9b Marjorie took the sick parakeet to a small animal hospital. (small hospital for animals; hospital for small animals)

One of the aspects of how meaning works in language is ambiguity. A sentence is ambiguous when it has two or more possible meanings, but how does ambiguity arise in language? A sentence can be ambiguous for either of the following reasons:

Lexical Ambiguity: A sentence is lexically ambiguous when it can have two or more possible meanings due to polysemous (words that have two or more related meanings) or homophonous (a single word which has two or more different meanings) words.

Example of lexically ambiguous sentence: Prostitutes appeal to the Pope. This sentence is ambiguous because the word ‘appeal’ is polysemous and can mean ‘ask for help’ or ‘are attractive to’.

Structural Ambiguity: A sentence is structurally ambiguous if it can have two or more possible meanings due to the words it contains being able to be combined in different ways which create different meanings.

Example of structurally ambiguous sentence: Enraged cow injures farmer with axe. In this sentence the ambiguity arises from the fact that the ‘with axe’ can either refer to the farmer, or to the act of injuring being carried out (by the cow) ‘with axe’.

Adjacency pair

When a question and an answer, or any two utterances, can go together in a conversation and the second is obviously related to the first, they constitute an adjacency pair.

10a When did you last write an article?

Ten minutes ago. Last Tuesday. Very nice. Around noon. I think it was on the first of June.

10b There’s a new film at Studio 21 tonight.

So I’ve heard. What’s it called? When did it open? So do I. Are you sure it’s a comedy?

The ability to cope with adjacency pairs is considered as part of any speaker’s implicit knowledge.


We are aware that two statements may be related in such a way that if one is true, the other must also be true as in the following examples of entailment.

11a There are apples in the fridge.

11b There are fruit in the frigde.

11c The ladder is too short to reach the roof.

11d The ladder isn’t long enough to reach the roof.

We assume that 11a and 11b are about the same garden, the truth of 11a entails the truth of 11b, that is, if 11a is true, 11 b must also be true. Likewise, assuming the same ladder and roof, the truth of 11c entails the truth of 11d.

There are two kinds of entailment: mutual entailment and asymmetrical entailment. In mutual entailment, each sentence must be true for the other to be true, e.g.: John is married to Rachel’ and ‘Rachel is John’s wife’, ‘Chris is a man’ and ‘Chris is human’, while in asymmetrical entailment, only one of the sentences must be true for the other to be true, but that sentence may be true without the other sentence necessarily having to be true, for example: ‘Rachel is John’s wife’ entails ‘John is married’ (but John is married does not entail Rachel being his wife), ‘Rachel has two brothers’ entails ‘Rachel is not an only child’ (but Rachel not being an only child does not entail Rachel having two brothers).


We know that the message conveyed in one sentence may presuppose other pieces of knowledge. For instance, if 12a is accepted as true, 12b-12e must also be accepted as true.

12a Evan usually drives his Toyota to work.

12b There is a person named Evan.

12c Evan works.

12d There is a Toyota that belongs to Evan.

12e Evan knows how to drive a car.

The meaning of sentence 12a presupposes what is expressed in 12b, c, d and e. The latter are presuppositions of 12a. Note that a presupposition does not establish the truth of anything. Sentence 12a is meaningful as it is, but it is true only if there is a person named Evan, who works and owns a Toyota, etc. The sentence is presented as if there is a person named Evan.

In summary, the above 12 terms are introduced to show the latent knowledge that we have about our language, the general implicit knowledge that we have about meaning in our language. We can deal with them successfully, we differ considerably, and circumstances differ considerably, depending on the way we individuals behave in a given situation or context, it does not necessarily indicate what our deeper competence is, there are personality factors involves such as willingness to cooperate, memory, attention, recent experience which much influences our performance.

7 Reasons Many Alumni Don’t Donate to Their College

Graduating from college is one of life’s major accomplishments. It should be celebrated ecstatically with all of an alumni’s family and friends. As several months roll by, graduates contemplate their career, or perhaps just a get a job to earn money before starting a career. But, at the same time, most graduates get the “call.” It’s not from an employer interested in hiring, but a representative from your school’s alumni office asking for a donation!

A donation already? Surprise!

Universities and colleges really want to build on their already long donor list. They don’t care about that huge amount of tuition money that a new alumni may be still paying off for the next 20 years. When colleges do call, they try to get the most from you: “Would $50 be enough? What about $100 to be on our “Silver Standard Group? Or, $500 to be on our Gold Standard Group?”

Today alumni are giving less to their school than they were twenty years ago, primarily for seven reasons.

1. According to the August 31, 2016 post of the Washington Examiner, the main reason most alumni aren’t giving money to their college is because they would use the money to give to worthier charitable causes. Besides, most alumni believe their college doesn’t need the money as much.

2. Colleges and universities charge a lot of money. For a four-year education the bill can go up as much as $280,000. Many college students are in serious debt because of such steep tuition costs. Still, colleges have the nerve to ask for money to many who graduated recently.

3. Young graduates probably neither have a job nor have decided on a career. Specific jobs can be difficult to find. Careers take time to plan and implement. Many feel they should save the money they have already.

4. Colleges ask for donations to increase the reputation of the school. According to the Daniels College of Business at the University of Denver, donating to university helps the reputation of the school. However, many schools base their reputation, less on academics and more on sports, especially in football and basketball. Tickets for both sports sell for quite a lot of money. There is such a loyal fan base that I wonder if the fans even know their big winning schools are schools at all. Overall, at the larger schools, alumni believe the school will still be standing in the next decade or so because it exists to win a national championship.

5. Many alumni won’t “give back” due to less than satisfactory academic and student life experiences. They feel no loyalty to the school because it is based on connectedness between the student and the school. These alumni typically don’t especially care how well it does financially now or in the future.

6. Universities and colleges aren’t the learning centers they used to be. According to the National Review website, they have become places where professors are teaching indoctrination of liberal ideas rather than on fewer facts. Many schools have become institutions of unrest due to racial chaos. Plus, more political correctness is demanded at many schools. College education is a completely different animal today than before.

7. Public and many private universities are already heavily funded by government dollars. Tuition and donations fund large private colleges. However, smaller colleges can manage alone with the enormous tuition costs for each student, even though they have fewer costs. As a result, many greedy private colleges and universities own such heavy endowments in the millions and billions of dollars that will never completely be used up.

Do you donate to your school? These seven reasons might make you change your mind about giving to your school. Colleges and universities can come off as greedy and insensitive to unfulfilled financial needs, especially if they call for money one or two months after graduation. Today, fewer alumni are committed to giving to their school due to a large shortage of money because of high tuition costs. The school really doesn’t need a donation because it already has a superior reputation. Some alumni have little or no school loyalty because their overall experience of their education and student life was negative. Education has been so watered down by political correctness, personal opinions and fewer facts. If these trends continue, alumni will continue giving much less money to their schools.

Top 10 Engineering Colleges in Chennai

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Madras):

IIT Madras was established in 1959. The college is one among the foremost institutes of national importance in higher technological education, basic and applied research. IIT Madras is a residential institute with nearly 460 faculty, 4500 students and 1250 administrative & supporting staff and is a self-contained campus located in a beautiful wooded land of about 250 hectares.

Entrance Exam: The entrance exam for IITs is JEE (Joint Entrance Examination) Advance. Students clearing the JEE Advance can seek admission to various IITs.

Campus Facilities: The college infrastructure includes facilities like Library, Classrooms, Computer Center, Workshop, Banks, Canteens, Guest Houses and Transport.

Placement: The Indian Institute of Technology, Madras is one of the most reputed institutes for technological education and research in India. Some of the top recruiters are 3DPLM Software Solutions Ltd, Bank Bazaar, Citicorp Services India, Deloitte, Essar Group, FMC Technologies India Pvt Ltd, Hewlett Packard, Infosys Ltd, ITC Ltd and ONGC.

College of Engineering:

The College was started as a Survey School in the year 1794, and was established as a college in 1859. It was finally set up into a technical institute in 1978. The Guindy College of Engineering is one of the oldest Engineering Colleges in the country today.

Entrance Exam: The entrance exam to seek admission in the College is TANCET (Tamilnadu Common Entrance Test).

Campus Facilities: The College has the provision for Library, Sports, Auditorium, Workshops and Laboratories in the premises.

Placement: The Centre for University and Industrial collaboration (CUIC/Placement cell) provides the infra-structural facilities to conduct group discussions, tests and interviews besides catering to other logistics. The industries, which approach the institute, come under the purview of Core Engineering industries; IT and IT enabled services, Manufacturing Industries, Consultancy Firms, Finance Companies, Management Organizations and R and D laboratories, etc.

Madras Institute of Technology (MIT):

MIT was established in 1949 by Shri.C.Rajam. It was the rare genius and daring of its founder that made MIT offer courses like Aeronautical Engineering, Automobile Engineering, Electronics Engineering and Instrument Technology for the first time in our country. Now it also provides technical education in other engineering fields such as Rubber and Plastic Technology & Production Technology. It was merged with Anna University in the year 1978.

Entrance Exam: MIT accepts students through the single window counseling that is conducted by the Anna University, Chennai. The single window counseling accepts applications to constituent colleges and colleges affiliated to Anna University.

Campus Facilities: The College campus has facilities for Library, Hostels, Health Centre, Classrooms, Sports Facilities, Computer Centre and Workshop.

Placement: The placement cell at MIT is attached to the Centre for University and Industrial Collaboration (CUIC). The placement activities of the constituent colleges of Anna University are scheduled by the CUIC.

SRM University:

The SRM University is a deemed university and was established in 1985. It was formerly known as SRM Institute of Science and Technology. SRM is accredited by NAAC with ‘A’ Grade in the year 2013. SRM University is placed in “A” category by MHRD.

Entrance Exam: The entrance exam to seek admission in SRM University is SRMJEEE (SRM Joint Engineering Entrance Examination).

Campus Facilities: The college infrastructure has facilities like Laboratories, Libraries, Wi-Fi, AC Auditorium, Hostels and Book stores, Dining Halls, Cafeterias and Gymnasium.

Placement: The consistent placement record illustrates the commitment to the success of the University. SRM University has a 100% job placement record. Students have no trouble finding coveted positions in reputed corporate and business houses that visit the campus every year, offering an excellent salary package on par with international standards.

Sri Sairam Engineering College (SSEC):

SSEC was established in 1995. The college is affiliated to Anna University, Chennai, approved by AICTE, New Delhi and accredited by NBA.

Entrance Exam: The entrance exam to seek admission in the college is Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission (TNEA) exam.

Campus Facilities: The College campus has the facilities like Library, Classrooms, Laboratories, Healthcare Center, Sports and Games, Cafeteria, Bank, Transport and Hostel.

Placement: The placement cell at SSEC is an integral part of the institute. Training activities are organized throughout the year in an effort towards preparing the prospective students for the campus selection programs. Some of the top recruiters are TCS, HCL, Infosys, HDFC Bank, Voltas, Syntel, Oracle, Aircel and Ford.

Sathyabama University:

This University was established in 1987, formerly known as Sathyabama Engineering College by Jeppiaar Educational Trust. The Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India has granted Deemed University status to the college in 2001 and University status in 2006 under section(3) of the UGC Act, 1956. The University has been awarded B++ grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and ISO 9001:2000 for professional quality management.

Entrance Exam: The admission to B.E., / B.Tech. Programmes are done solely on the basis of the performance in the All India B.E/B.Tech Entrance Examination conducted by Sathyabama University.

Campus Facilities: The College has provision for Library, Laboratories, Internet Facility, Hostel, Health and Fitness, Conference Halls, Bank and ATM, Transportation and Sports.

Placement: The University have full-fledged placement cell, which monitors the employment opportunities and arrange campus interviews for the final year students. Some of the top recruiters are Alstom, American Express, Asian Paints, Apsara Innovations, BirlaSoft Technologies, Blue Star Air-Conditioners, BPL, CADS Software, Cater Piller and CITOS.

Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT):

VIT was established under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956, and was founded in 1984 as a self-financing institution called the Vellore Engineering College. NAAC has re-accredited VIT University with an ‘A’ grade.

Entrance Exam: B.Tech degrees from VIT University are achieved by successfully getting through the VITEEE (Vellore Institute of Technology Engineering Entrance Exam) conducted every year.

Campus Facilities: The campus facilities include Conference Facilities, Computing Centers, Smart Classrooms, Library Facilities, Campus Amenities, Sports & Gymnasium, Hostels & Dining, Swimming Pool, Transport and Health Service.

Placement: VIT University has been consistently setting records of campus placements amongst private institutions in India. Over 400 recruiters from Core Engineering and Software companies visit each year. Some of the top recruiters are Accenture, Cognizant, Wipro, Infosys, Reliance Industries, Reliance Power, Tata Power, Tata Bluescope Steel and Crompton Greaves.

St. Joseph’s College of Engineering (SJCOE):

The Jeppiaar Educational Trust was formed in 1987 under the leadership of Dr. Jeppiaar, Founder-Chairman & Managing Trustee. St. Joseph`s College of Engineering was established under the guidance of Jeppiaar Educational Trust in the year 1994 as per the rules of government of Tamil Nadu. It is a Christian Minority Institution and is one of the Tier-1 Institutions in Tamil Nadu.

Entrance Exam: The students have to write JEE Mains and Tamil Nadu Professional Courses Entrance Examination (TNPCEE) to seek admission in the college.

Campus Facilities: The college infrastructure includes Indoor auditorium, conference hall, open air theatre, central library, book bank, internet facility, hostel, mess, transport, bank, gym, etc.

Placement: It nurtures Industry institute interaction and moulds and mentors the students to be fit for the placement. It also provides job opportunities by bringing companies for campus recruitment to all eligible students of the final year. It enhances and employs current practical and technical knowledge of the students. Some of the top recruiters are L&T Infotech, Cognizant, Wipro, Mphasis, Infosys, Virtusa, NTT Data, Federal Bank, Verzon, MRF, SAPE International, Sasken, etc.

Vel Tech Dr.RR & Dr.SR Technical University:

The University was established in 1990 by Vel Tech group of educational institutions by a well known industrialist couple Dr.R. Rangarajan and Dr.R. Sakunthala Rangarajan dedicated to public service. Vel Tech has earned accreditation by the National Board of Accreditation, New Delhi for all the degree programmes. It has been duly declared as deemed to be university by the UGC and notified by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, New Delhi.

Entrance Exam: The entrance exam for B.Tech. Degree programmes is VTUEEE (Veltech Technical University Engineering Entrance Exam) conducted every year.

Campus Facilities: The colleges has facilities like Library, Classrooms, Laboratories, Resource centre, Canteen, Conference Hall, Computing Laboratory, Transportation, Hostels and Medical facilities.

Placement: The placement cell of the university provides placements to students as they enter their pre-final year. Some of the top recruiters are Accenture BPO, Bajaj Allianz-Life Insurance, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Global Technologies, HDFC Life Insurance, Infosys Technologies LTD, MAX Newyork, Life Insurance, Mphasis (EDS), Reliance Infocom and Thomson Scientific.

B.S. Abdur Rahman University(BSAU):

B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandalur, (formerly B.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent Engineering College) has been established under section 3 of the UGC Act 1956, which has now been upgraded as B.S Abdur Rahman University, was an institution acclaimed throughout India for its quality in teaching and research.

Entrance Exam: BSAUEEE (B.S. Abdur Engineering Entrance Examination) is the entrance exam which is conducted for taking admission to 4 years Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) programme.

Campus Facilities: The campus has facilities like well stocked library, well maintained laboratories, community hall, mosque, convention center, computer center, cafeteria, health center, outdoor game courts and transport service.

Placement: Some of the top recruiters are L&T Infotech, Igate, Mphasis, Mindtree, Prime Focus Technologies, Polaris, Saint Gobain, IBM and Wipro among the others.

Students Can Choose Countries Other Than the US or UK for Higher Education

Utrecht University, Netherlands is ranked at 86th position by education advisory Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings, 2017. Apart from being affordable, the campus is an abode for students all around the world.

Phil Baty, World University Ranking Editor at Times Higher Education, said that cities such as Utrecht, Cape Town of Africa and Daejeon of South Korea have varsities in the Top 100 and this shows about the options students have. Though the rankings are topped by the US and UK but there are countries from Asia and Europe on the list also.

The Asian and European countries include Universities from Germany, Sweden, Belgium, Japan, South Korea, Switzerland and Finland. The University of Hong Kong is ranked at 43th position, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in South Korea is at 89th position and University of Cape Town in South Africa at 148th position among the top 150 universities on the list.

RSS Mani, Vice President of Institutional Development at the ITM Group of Institutions, said that environmental location of the university should not matter much. Rather students shall be more concerned about whether the university is reliable, the courses it offers, whether the country is immune to political issues and whether the students can adapt properly or not.

According to Education Consultants, the courses in Sweden are very well-planned and faculty is also of good quality.

Sweden has five globally acclaimed universities with a huge strength of foreign students. Karolinska Institute in Stockholm is ranked 28th by Times Higher Education ranking. It has ample scope for research, English courses and many students across the world.

According to a consultancy service, if a student wants to learn subjects like Genetics, Molecular Biology or Agricultural Engineering, Finland is a place to be. It offers an eighteen month work permit after completion of the course, trouble-free immigration policies and a better shared culture. The University of Helsinki, Finland is ranked at 91th position on the Times Higher Education list.

Chris Parr, Digital and Communities Editor at Times Higher Education World University Rankings stated that Hong Kong has six of the universities in the top 500 Times Higher Education ranking list and most of the university courses are taught in English and the universities have well-built associations with the employers which makes getting a job easy after completion of the degree.

According to an online counseling firm, China provides good job prospects to foreign students in Multinational Companies (MNCs).

For students who are interested in making a career in the field of photography or graphic design, Poland is the ultimate destination. The courses are taught by well-acclaimed professionals around the globe and the courses are affordable also

South Korea is the place for IT courses and jobs. Though the cost of tuition may be relatively low and the scholarship programmes are easy to avail but cost of living is expensive in some of the European countries. Looking for low-cost lodging in Stockholm takes time.

The Times Higher Education Editor highlighted the fact that most of the universities are still in the run of etablishing their status globally. Employers are thoughtful to a degree from a renowned institution in a country which is known for its high- quality education like the US or UK than they would do to a degree from a university that possibly they might have not heard of earlier.

Experts say that because of smaller Indian student communities in the unusual countries, one might feel like a stranger especially if English is not their first language. Initially understanding new culture is difficult but gradually one gets adapted to it.

Top 8 Factors to Consider When Choosing a College

Importance of Accreditation

An accredited college implies that the concerned college is recognized by the official, state and other educational authorities for being an institution that provides high quality education. This is very important as if the college is not accredited, the degree will not hold merit value in job placements, as well as for further studies.

Use of up-dated syllabus

Colleges whose vision is to instill a deep sense of foundation learning will ensure that their syllabus is up-to-date with the latest trends. With the speed at which new developments are occurring in every field, it’s important that colleges keep up and revise the syllabus of their program regularly. This will work wonders for the students in the long run, and reduce the cost and effort of firms in training them.

College Location

This important factor requires you to do some soul searching on your own, and decide if you want pick a college that is close to your own home, or you are comfortable re-locating to another place for the purpose of your education. We assert that you take a balanced call and if a good program allows for accommodation and stay, it’s a worthy investment.

Student – Professor Ratio

This refers to average class size a professor would take when delivering lectures. Some colleges have larger classes, where the Professor will not be able to give personal attention to each student thus leading to a dilution of study. Opting for college where is student – professor ratio is optimal allows you to interact with the professor well and learn efficiently.

Check the scholarship provisioning of the college

Students have to think about the over-all cost overheads before joining any institute. Pursuing a program from a reputed institute can sometimes be expensive, in such cases students must check for scholarship provisioning by the institute. Some Universities offer Scholarships as high up to 5 crore for the eligible students.

Transfer rate of Students: Transfer rate of students refers to the rate of percentage of incoming students who want to leave; if it is very high, it implies that students are not happy with college.

Safety: An important criterion that at times gets overlooked is ‘Safety’. Students must check if the college has adequate measures to ensure the safety inside its campus. If you are taking full time accommodation in the college, you must ensure that there are necessary alarms to prevent intruders out of the dorms at night. Also, if it’s a vast campus do check if the college has a patrolling security service so that you feel self-assured when studying at college.

Internship and Placement

Checking out where prior students of the college have got their internship done, as well as the recruiters who picked the students will give you an idea of the overall quality of students graduating from the institute. Some colleges have comprehensive programs of study which allow them to get good placements.

Emergence of New Universities

Currently, there are a number of new universities that have come up in India. These through their innovative and modern methodologies of teaching have managed to carve a niche for themselves as being excellent centers of higher education in India.

Sandip University situated in Trimbak, Nashik is among them, and in a short period of time is today considered amongst the Top-10 centers of higher education in India, by a Times-B-School survey. By far the leading university in Nasik, the institute has grown from strength to strength from the day of its inception.

Completely self-financed Sandip University has brought about a revolution of sorts with its novel methodology of teaching that centers on the growth of its students. Having 13 schools under its umbrella, it today is a preferred choice for many aspirants of higher education. Not only have we found Sandip University, matching all the 8 factors above, it also has excellent faculties that makes it at par with some of the best Universities in the world.

What Can Instructors Do to Promote Learning?

If you were to ask your students at the end of a course week, or at the end of a course, what they learned – what do you believe their answer would be? Would it be something they have read, a memorable class lecture, an engaging class discussion, or insight gained as a result of all of these classroom elements combined? As an educator, do you believe that learning is an ongoing process throughout the duration of the course, or do you find that it occurs at specific points and as a result of specific prompts?

It is assumed that a classroom, an instructor, a textbook, and assigned learning activities will ensure that learning occurs when students are enrolled. Consider the purpose of learning objectives or outcomes when the course is developed. The objectives establish a purpose for the course and measurement for assessments so that students can demonstrate learning has occurred. All learning activities are designed specifically for the purpose of ensuring that learning objectives are met.

Yet learning does not occur in a linear manner, within the prescribed number of course weeks, or with the assigned learning activities. Even the established course objectives do not guarantee that students will learn according to what has been planned. What is the critical element? The classroom instructor. The instructor’s role is essential not only to classroom management, but to creating conditions within the classroom and the minds of the students that are conducive to learning. These are conditions the course objectives and learning activities alone cannot create.

Additional Questions About Learning in the Classroom

As I have been thinking about the process of learning, I have developed a list of additional questions that I would like to pose to help other educators also consider how students learn.

How do you define learning? Is it a matter of students acquiring information, completing assignments, earning a grade, participating in class discussions, completing a course, or something else? Do you consider outcomes measured by the learning objectives to be temporary in nature or do those goals indicate that something long-term has occurred when students are able to demonstrate mastery or completion of each one?

Does every student learn something in your class? This is important to consider as it is almost assumed that learning is going to happen, as if there is a guarantee it will take place for every student who makes an attempt. You can also consider the amount of effort a student puts in and whether or not that will influence their ability to learn.

Do some learning activities promote learning better than others? For example, when a student answers a discussion question, has this student demonstrated learning or is a response to an instructor’s follow up question a better indicator? Are written assignments as effective, or more effective, than class discussions for helping students demonstrate what they have learned? Are some types of assignments more effective than others for serving this purpose?

My Perspective as a Student and an Educator

I obtained two of my degrees in a traditional college classroom environment. What I remember most are some of the class projects I had to complete, along with some of the written projects – especially the culminating project for my MBA program. I wrote a business plan and I was required to conduct the research necessary to launch the new business, which really put to use everything I had studied. As a result of this project, there are concepts and an application of theories that I never forgot and this helped to inform my work as an educator.

I obtained the remainder of my degrees in a non-traditional or online college classroom environment. The most challenging degree was my doctorate degree as there was nothing for me to memorize and no tests for me to pass. I earned my grades by conducting research and completing projects, especially written projects that applied the information I gained in a manner that I was creating long term knowledge. I remember those projects very well, especially my research study, and the work I began during that doctoral program I continue today. The knowledge I gained has been applied to my career, along with the books, blog posts, and articles I have written.

When I taught at the community college, I was different than many of the other instructors as I did not want to teach for a test. I knew that most of the lectures I heard while in my traditional programs were long forgotten, as were the tests I had taken. I wanted to be different and I incorporated interesting elements into my instruction. Many students were taken by surprise as they expected the same two hour stand-and-lecture approach, followed by a mid-term and final exam.

Most of my work as an educator has been in the field of distance learning. I know that the for-profit online school industry has been under scrutiny. However, distance learning can be effective if there is an instructor who has been trained not only in the subject matter but the principles of adult education. When students are provided with discussions and meaningful papers to write, and there is an instructor to guide them, they are likely to gain something of value from the class. This has always been my goal. I know as a faculty development specialist that instructors who do not understand adult education principles are the ones who often struggle to relate to students and that can leave students on their own, which can have an adverse impact on the learning process.

I have also watched a non-profit online school become prominent in the field of distance learning and it has caused many accreditors and educators like myself great concern as there are no instructors involved. It is advertised as being competency-based, but that is just a fancy phrase (for this school) for correspondence-style courses. Students can study (or not if they choose) and take assessments (three or four times if needed) until they pass – often with a score as low as 51%. There are no grades issued on transcripts, only pass or fail indicators. It will be interesting to see if this fad is accepted in the long run, or if accreditors will demand instructor to student interactions.

What Can Instructors Do to Promote Learning?

As I have studied adult education, I have come to understand learning from the perspective of how the mind takes and processes information. When students read something in the textbook or listen to a lecture, that is information and some of it will be stored in short term memory. The same is true for memorizing information for a test. That information is stored in short term memory. In order for educators to state that learning has occurred, students need to make a connection with that information in some manner or apply it in some way so that it will move into long-term memory. Long-term memory is a storage center and arranged by connections and associations. With this understanding of how information is stored, it can help an instructor prepare to help students in the classroom.

Classroom Contributions: As an instructor, you need to have a dual perspective of your classroom. One perspective is classroom management and ensuring that your contractual obligations have been met. The other is from an educational perspective and what you can do to prompt conditions conductive to adult education – even if you did not control the design of the course itself. The most important addition you can make is your intellectual contribution. As an educator, you have a unique ability to see the course concepts from multiple perspectives and you can share these views during discussions, as follow up replies and prompts. You can also share additional resources, overviews, wrap-ups, summaries, and guides – anything that will provide additional value for your students.

Student Readiness and Preparedness: The two issues that can help students, or hinder their performance at any given time, are academic readiness and preparedness. This may be beyond your immediate control at first; however, as you get to know your students and provide feedback, you will be able to address their developmental needs. What you can do is consider methods and strategies that will help their ability to learn each class week. For example, can you provide a rubric for a written assignment to help them self-check their work? Can you provide strategies and resources as tips to help them? For example, I have shared note-taking strategies and this has helped some students who struggled with reading comprehension.

Instructional Approach: As an educator, I want to focus on stimulating their intellectual interest and engaging their mind. If I provide a canned answer to a discussion question, or I do not take time to read the content of a paper, I am missing out on an opportunity to engage them in the learning process. I want to ask questions that cause students to think further and to look for additional information and answers. For the subject matter I am teaching, I am always reading to stay current in this field and looking for additional resources, case studies, and current issues I can share with students as a means of bringing the course materials to life.

Can students learn without an instructor? Yes, it is possible as we all learn informally every day. But in a formal classroom environment it is a different matter and regardless of the trends and fads that come and go in higher education, nothing can replace the value that a highly experienced and educated instructor brings to the classroom – especially one who truly cares about students and the value they receive from the class. Instructors promote learning when they are actively engaged in the class and more importantly, actively engaging the minds of their students. While this does not mean that every student will pass the class, it does indicate that students who are making an effort to be involved in the class will likely retain something in long-term memory that will be recalled later, and that is the ultimate goal of adult education.

Best BBA Course 2017: Specially Designed to Make Students More Knowledgeable

A BBA course is an extensive four-year degree program that focuses on a variety of business areas like Foreign trade, digital marketing, financial analysis and services, e-business, economics, international business and much more. The degree is meant to provide students with a solid knowledge foundation that will enable them to prepare for careers in business.

You are probably wondering how you can benefit from the best BBA course in 2017. The BBA program is specially designed to make students more knowledgeable and proficient in the practices and principles of daily business management and as such, students concentrate on key areas like economics, finance, accounting, global practices, and information systems.

There are numerous benefits of obtaining the best BBA course in 2017. When it comes to academics, students stand to benefit greatly by learning a wide range of aspects in the world of business. Students who enroll for a BBA course acquire knowledge that covers the theory aspects, law, practices, ethics, human resources, statistics, e-business, and consumer trends. The students who enroll in the courses additionally benefit through the network opportunities presented to them when they interact with professors and their fellow students.

It is worth noting that tuition rates you pay for your Bachelor of Business Administration course will most likely vary from one institution to another. Since the programs are offered physically in a standard classroom setting while others are offered online all over the world, it is advisable for the potential students to make inquiries about pricing and other related costs from their chosen institutions.

Graduates with BBA degrees are equipped with sufficient knowledge that enables them to pursue multiple career options. The programs help prepare graduates to secure employment opportunities in the private and public sectors. The employers hire these graduates as operation managers, department heads, cost estimators, or sales managers. Some graduates may also choose to apply their skills in their own businesses by becoming entrepreneurs.

Anyone wishing to enroll for a BBA course will gladly discover that there are quite a number of universities in different parts of the world, meaning you have a wide variety to choose from. When shopping around for BBA admission 2017 opportunities, it is critical that you carefully weigh your options before settling on your preferred institution. If you need greater convenience, then you may opt for the online learning opportunities. These are a superb solution for students who are considering BBA admission 2017 but would rather not attend classes physically in the traditional way.

Guide To The Best Degree Course And University

To most people, education is everything. Due to this, they are cautious from the type of courses they choose to the universities they attend. To help you out, here are tips on how to make the right decision.

Best degree courses

There are plenty of university degrees you can choose from. Some of the best being:

Web development: Everyone is now getting into the digital space and almost every company is looking to hire a web expert. In this course, you will study a lot of mathematics and physics. You will be working with computer languages thus you should be ready to learn a few computer programming languages. When you graduate you can start your own web development company or seek employment in one of the many companies looking for computer experts.

Nursing: As a registered nurse you will be doing some of the duties carried out by a physician. This can be medical prescription and even diagnosis. Since you will be dealing with the human body, you should be ready to learn about the human anatomy. Also be ready to study about drugs and drug interactions. If you have looked at the job portals, you must have noticed that every year there are plenty of nurses required in the job market. You can work in one of the hospitals or even start your own clinic.

Biomedical Engineering: This course combines engineering sciences with biomedicine and clinical practice. In addition to the comfort of a high salary when you pursue this course, you also have more meaning to your work as you will be working in two areas-you will be working with machines and also humans. The most attractive thing is that the industry is on upward trend thus many biomedical engineers will be in demand in the future.

In school, you will be learning about the various biomedical equipment and how you can use them to make the lives of the patients easier.

Occupational therapy: As an occupational therapist you help ill, injured, and disabled people to access their workplace and easily face the various aspects of their lives. Your role will be evaluating the patients in their workplace and home, identify their health needs and any possible improvements.

Guide to choosing the best university

When you are looking to join a university, you need to consider plenty of factors. Some of these factors include:

Relevance: How relevant is the university to what you are studying? While most universities teach on a wide range of courses, there are some universities that are better known for a given area of study. For example, there are some that are known for business related courses, others for medicine courses and so on. To increase your chances of getting employed and get expert knowledge, go to a college that is known for a given discipline. For example, if interested in finance, attend a university that focuses on business related courses.

Fee: This is also crucial. As rule of thumb, you should join an institution that is within your budget. When making your choice you should note that private universities are more expensive than the public ones.


This is what you need to know when you are choosing a university degree and the school to attend. To have an easy time, choose a course that you love.

Top Engineering Universities in India 2017

Engineering is one of the most comprehensive and popular university courses in India that students enroll after graduating in high school. In fact, in 2016 there were over 2.2 million engineering seats that are being sanctioned because the country is known to produce the largest technical manpower in the world. Knowing which university to enroll is not that easy as there are thousands of schools in the country that offers the course.

What are the Top Engineering Universities in India?

The list below will give you a comprehensive list of the top engineering universities in India that are based on the school’s rankings and ratings.

1. Indian Institute of Science – The school was founded in 1909. It was a result of the joint effort made by Jamsetji Nussarwanji Tata and the government of India. It is situated in Bangalore. The school has received various excellence awards in Engineering. In fact, this year it did rank as the number 1 school for engineering with a rating of 83.28%.

2. Indian Institute of Technology – This is a public school in which Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru has founded. The goal of the school is to provide highly trained technical personnel to the country and would act as leaders in the newly independent India. Today, this school is one of the top public school universities in the country.

3. Jawaharlal Nehru University – Situated in New Delhi, India, this school was established in 1966. The name of the school was named after the first Prime Minister of the country. According to the National Institutional Ranking Framework of the Government of India, Jawaharlal Nehru University received the rank of number 2 in the country. They have an overall rating of 61.53%.

4. University of Petroleum and Energy Studies – This school was founded by prominent educationalists and industry experts. They were established last 2003. Although they are new, the school has proven that they are competent in delivering quality engineering courses. In fact, they were given 5 stars in ranking by the Quacquarelli Symonds Limited (UK) in two categories. These are employability and facilities.

5. National Institute of Technology – Situated in the heart of Tamil Nadu, this school was established in 1964 as a joint effort between the government of India and the government of Tamil Nadu. The school offers 10 undergraduate courses and 26 post-graduate studies that focus on the discipline of science and engineering and technology.

6. Banaras Hindu University – This internationally reputed school is located in the holy city of Varanasi. It was founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya in 1916. The school has around 15,000 students from all walks of life, caste, religion, and races.

The list mentioned above is just some of the top universities in India that offer the engineering course. The list comprises both public and private entities. Depending on your preference you may find out more about them on their websites.

Get Your College Education Free

In general, if a manufacturer produces a product for a dollar, by the time it reaches the retail shelf to be priced at ten dollars, there have been numerous customary markups in cost to account for all processes and services required to get the product there. Additionally, there is an accounting of what the retailer believes regarding the exclusivity of the product and the market demand for the product. As such, if the retailer believes that it can get ten dollars per product unit, then it will do its best to acquire the product as close to the one dollar production cost, to increase the margin (net profit after sale).

Like any other product, the employer wants to pay as little as possible for you and your services. The most capable and productive of you will contribute to, fully produce or sell far more value than you cost your employer annually.

While the aristocracy and some of the wealthy may look upon a college/university education as a globally-oriented, social finishing experience for the young adults in their families, the existing and developing bourgeois (middle class) should recognize college as the next step toward their personal success in the market. Broad, non-focused development of diverse cultural experiences, knowledge and related soft skills is of limited market value and cannot be justified in a ROI consideration. The implication is not that we should forego teaching liberal arts. However, much of higher education has drifted so far from marketable to the corporate world that it is almost criminal to suggest to a student that s/he should major in such subjects, much less pay for the “opportunity”.

The higher education industry claims that as a result of their education and training you will be paid by industry. But, as schools focus more on expanding their liberal arts, fine arts, entertainment (including sports) departments and to a lesser degree upon that which supports and drives markets, the more graduates finish college with lesser marketable knowledge and skills. Most colleges are not accountable for producing job-specific, job-accessing graduates from each student enrolled. Some have even reduced career to the equivalents of in-house, electronic job boards. Further compromising the process, industry, as the primary beneficiary of well-educated pools of candidates, are not paying for your training as it did at the onset of the American Industrial Revolution.

If colleges and universities wish to promote very broad course catalogs and higher education experiences, maybe they should be convincing all of industry that they are providing the training/education their prospective employees need. Maybe they should even be exacting payment from corporate America for education/training services rendered, cooperative placement, and to improve the industry-education system relationship relevancy.

But, until such happens, and until U.S. corporations start behaving in a more nationalistic manner, you as a student will need to focus on selling Brand You, finding and acquiring the free or substantially reduced cost, market valuable educations you need and deserve. There are numerous routes to free and very low net cost educations at numerous very good colleges and universities. Get your free, quality education. Your Success Matters!

We have successfully researched and applied high-performance learning strategies, top college acceptance, and acquisition of complete and substantially covered college expenses for many years. Unless you have a preference for lesser performance, lower post-graduation outcomes, and substantial educational debt, come see our other materials.